Meat and meat products
Meat as it is known and as it was deeply and widely studied by several investigators through out the world is not well defined. So the carcass preparation and all the phenomena leading to meat are not carried out in the right way. This kind of food may depend on some ethic and religious customs, which could not be changed by science or by technology such as the case of muslim way for slaughtering.
Man was used to preserve perishable foods during high production periods to be used in periods of shortness. The art of preserving meat by salting and sun drying is a practice dating back to several centuries when Muslim countries were used to preserve meat from the sheep sacrificed in “Eid Aladha”. Temperatures are high in these countries and refrigeration had not been known yet. So, the only known method to preserve food was salting and drying. The resulting product is called kaddid and it was prepared only when meat is available in large amounts that the family cannot consume within a short period. Spoilage may occur rapidly and the product is discarded.
Food preservation by salting and drying dated back to centuries before the discovery of the microorganisms and their role in foods. Their effect on fresh foods were well established and man was used to prevent food spoilage by salting and, fermenting and/or drying. These are the most used procedure for preserving highly perishable foodstuffs such as meat, fish, cheese etc..
Several meat products have been described with serenity and a lot of them were studied deeply to improve and to modernize their processing. Several fermented meat products are known through out the world such as dried sausages, smoked meats and etc.. However some others were not investigated nor at least described in the literature such as kaddid and Khliaa, which are very common in many countries. But there is no scientific description of their procedures. These products are prepared whenever it was necessary especially when these foods are produced in large amounts. The art of preserving meat by salting and sun drying is a practice dating back to the early history of food technology.
Some meat products, such as sausages, were modernized by milling, inoculating and conditioning. These are known through out the world and are processed in developed countries in huge amounts by a high scale production. Many brands of the same product exist now. Some other products are not known to the industrials nor to the consumers in the developed countries and many of them are now being prepared by traditional procedures. Among these products, kaddid is the oldest meat product known to the African, meadle eastern and southasian countries. This product is prepared from goat, sheep or lamb meat by salting and sun drying until a maximum removal of water, then the obtained product is stored at ambient temperature for at least 1 year.
Biochemical reactions may occur during salting drying and/or during storage leading to the typical characteristic flavour of kaddid. The flavour is qualified as lipolyzed due to the fat hydrolysis and oxidation by lipases either existing in meat or released by the contaminating lipolytic microorganisms. Proteolysis can also occur and lead to some peptides and/or aminoacids, which are involved in characteristics flavour of the product. Kaddid is consumed after cooking and it is used for its flavour rather than for its nutritional quality.
Kaddid is a meat product prepared by the traditional procedure which may consist of the following: All parts of the carcass can be used and meat is deboned except for the thorax. Meat is cut in long pieces to allow salt diffusion and drying. The cuts are sprinkled with a mixture of salt and spices and left for 1 night before drying. Cuts are then exposed to sun by hanging on a string until a maximum drying. The obtained product is called Kaddid and it is stored at ambient temperatures for 1 year.
Our studies carried out on the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, showed a very safe and stable food product (Bennani et al, 1995). The product is characterized by a strong flavor due to fat lipolysis and free fatty acids oxidation during drying. Proteolysis may also occur to give some volatile nitrogen compounds improving the flavor of the product.
The traditional procedure of Kaddid making was described by (Bennani et al, 2000) who demonstrated the good preservation of this product by lowering the aw, salting and spice-flavouring (coriander, garlic, pepper). According to the same authors, the product is characterized by a strong flavour due to fat lipolysis and probably free fatty acids oxydation. Proteolysis may also help in flavour development by releasing some amines and/or aminoacids that have a role in the organoleptic quality of foods.
Even if various meat products have been described with serenity and several of them were investigated deeply and even if a lot of fermented meat products are known throughout the world, some others are still not investigated nor described in the literature such as Khliaa. This product is widely consumed in Morocco and in many other African countries.
All parts of the carcass can be used. Meat is deboned and cut in long pieces to allow salt diffusion and drying. The cuts are sprinkled with a mixture of salt and spices and left for 1 night then exposed to sun by hanging on a string until drying. The obtained product called kaddid is then cooked in animal fat until melting. The cooking should be continued until the water is totally eliminated. Fat should be used in proportions more than meat around 60 % fat 40 % meat. The cooked mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature for solidifying and the ready «Khliaa» can be conditioned in containers that can be tightly closed (Figure ).